Yemen (Official title: Republic of Yemen, Arabic pronunciation: al-Jumhuriyah al-Yamaniyah) borders the Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden between Oman and Saudi Arabia. It has a total area of 527,970 sq km or 203,850 sq miles and a desert climate. The climate is hot and humid along the coast, temperate in the western mountains, and extremely hot and dry in the eastern desert. A little less than 3% of its land is arable. As with many other Middle Eastern countries, Yemen experiences sand and wind storms in the summer. Currently, Yemen is experiencing overgrazing, desertification, soil erosion, and limited access to fresh water. Many Yemeni farmers grow a plant called Qat, which is chewed for its stimulant properties and is more profitable than traditional crops; however, the cultivation of qat demands far more water than traditional crops, further imperiling the already dwindling water supply. In fact, water, or the lack thereof, has become a major cause of conflict throughout the country. Progress on these issues has been stalled by shortfalls in local and national budgets, and by the prolonged and devastating conflict between Saudi-backed government forces and the separatist Shia Houthi population.
A unique feature of Yemen is Socotra Island located 240 kilometers (150 mi) east of the Horn of Africa and 380 kilometers (240 mi) south of the Arabian Peninsula. The island is isolated and through the process of speciation, a third of its plant and animal life is found nowhere else on the planet. One such example is the dragon’s blood tree, which is an umbrella-shaped tree whose red sap was once used as a medicine. The island also features the dendrosicyos socotranus plant. Known as the “cucumber tree,” this is the only plant with significant genetic similarities to cucumber plants that grows in tree form. Several unique bird species like the Socotra starling and Socotra sparrow are found only on this island. The island has been described as the most alien-looking place on Earth. The island measures 132 kilometers (82 mi) in length and 49.7 kilometers (30.9 mi) in width.
Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the Arab world, but it is also one of the oldest centers of civilization, dating back to 1200 BCE. Between the 12th century BCE and the 6th century CE, Yemen was one of the centers of world commerce and was situated along the spice trade route, which provided a lucrative source of income. During the 6th century, Yemen fell under Ethiopian rule. Beginning in the 7th century, a series of Islamic caliphs who ruled the area until the 11th century, when Egyptian Sunni caliphs took control of much of the northern region of present-day Yemen. Most of Northern Yemen and small parts of Southern Yemen became incorporated into the Ottoman Empire during the 19th century, although the Zaidi imams generally maintained control of the highland regions until the Ottomans captured Sana’a in 1872.
During this century, the British Empire controlled areas along the coast of Southern Yemen and the port of Aden and administered the region as a part of British India. The British designated this territory as the Aden Protectorate and divided it into an Eastern and a Western Protectorate. The British used this port as a prominent station for refueling its coal ships on the route to India, and this position became even more important following the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. The British and Ottomans agreed upon a de facto border between the North and South in 1904, creating the divisions between the northern and southern regions which would have critical importance in the country’s modern history.
The defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I signaled the end of all Ottoman control of Northern Yemen. As Turkish forces withdrew in 1918, Imam Yahya Muhammad strengthened his control over the region and created the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. This kingdom battled with the emerging Saud family in present-day Saudi Arabia, although control of the territory remained mostly unchanged and hostilities ended in 1934 with the signing of the Treaty of Taif. Northern Yemen joined the Arab League as a founding member of the organization in 1945 and entered the United Nations in 1947.
In Southern Yemen, the British formally recognized the city of Aden as a British colony in 1937. The surrounding countryside remained the Aden Protectorate and the British provided little support or development to this region. As pressure mounted for the British to leave Aden in the decades after World War II, the British attempted to consolidate control of this area by uniting several states of the Aden Protectorate into the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South. Throughout the early 1960s, the British worked to incorporate most of the Aden Protectorate into the Federation and in 1963, the Colony of Aden was added and the union was renamed the Federation of South Arabia. Those areas that did not join the Federation of South Arabia, which mostly comprised the territories in the eastern half of the former Aden Protectorate, formed the Protectorate of South Arabia in 1963.
Yemen’s government, established during the 1994 unification, has a president that is elected by direct, popular vote and rules for a 7-year term. Yemen is a democratic republic with a bicameral legislature featuring a 301-seat House of Representatives elected by the people, and a 111-member Shura Council appointed by the president. While multiple parties are allowed to run for political office, the General People’s Congress Party dominates the political scene and holds a large majority of seats in the House. The members of the legislature have 6-year terms. Men and women 18 and over have the right to vote.
INTERNATIONAL & REGIONAL ISSUES
Despite its proximity to neighboring Gulf Cooperation Council member states, Yemen is not a member of the influential regional organization. Because of its poverty, its lack of oil and other resources, its non-monarchical government structure, and its support for Iraq during the 1990 invasion of Kuwait, Yemen remains out of favor with and is distinctly divided from the GCC cohort. Nonetheless, the GCC in general, and Saudi Arabia in particular, have been generous with their financial assistance to Yemen.
Border Security and Migration
Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities such as illegal movement of suspected terrorists and drugs and weapons smuggling. In April 2019, at least 16,300 immigrants from Ethiopia and 1,900 from Somalia were in Yemen. Of that group, about 15,200 immigrants stated that their intended destination was Saudi Arabia. The remaining refugees said that Yemen was their intended destination. Migration to and from Yemen is incredibly dangerous due to the ongoing war. Despite the immense danger, refugees still risk being killed, captured, and trafficked during their journey into and across Yemen.
Arab Spring and Civil War
After the 2012 Yemen Arab Spring, Abdrubbah Mansur Hadi became the official president of Yemen. Shortly after coming into power, Hadi and other government officials were forced to flee to Saudi Arabia in response to a rebellion, in the north, led by the Iran-backed Houthi party. The Houthis were so successful in their revolt that they were able to take over the capital city of Yemen, Sana’a. In the south, the Southern Separatist Movement demanded independence and established a capital in the port city of Aden. In an attempt to reestablish Hadi’s government and restore control in Yemen, the Saudi-led coalition — an American supported group of countries from the Middle East and North Africa — began launching attacks on the Houthis and Southern Separatists, leading many Yemenis to seek refuge elsewhere.
In September 2019, Saudi Arabia agreed to a limited ceasefire, and the Houthis announced they would also terminate “hundreds” of drone and missile attacks. The agreement, which didn’t last very long, came after the Houthis attacked a major Saudi oil facility. On November 5, 2019, the Yemeni government signed a deal with the South Separatists. The agreement, while not final, called for the creation of a new cabinet that would allow equal representation for northern and southern Yemenis. While official peace talks were being held, the Houthis also held continuous unofficial mediated negotiations with Saudi Arabia, signaling the desire for the war to end sooner rather than later.
With the many peace negotiations taking place, the official Yemeni government was expected to return and lead the country. However, their return to Yemen was delayed on November 12 due to claims that the Southern Separatists refused to give up control of the presidential palace and Aden, the southern capital. The government was able to return the following week with peace talks continuing.
Despite these efforts to end the war, the International Rescue Committee estimates the crisis has displaced at least 3.3 million people. According to a November 2018 United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights news release, it had documented 17,640 civilian casualties in Yemen, including 6,872 dead and 10,768 injured, between March 2015 and November 2018. Of those casualties, 10,852 resulted from airstrikes carried out by the Saudi-led Coalition. However, there are extreme variations in casualty estimates because different entities use different dates and sources of information for their data. The Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project, or ACLED, said its data indicated 57,538 people — civilians and combatants — had been killed since the beginning of 2016. The organization’s count is considered by many international agencies to be one of the most credible, although all caution that is still likely to be an underestimate because of the difficulties in tracking deaths. Furthermore, those numbers do not include those who have died in the humanitarian disaster caused by the war, particularly starvation and other health problems. Aid group Save the Children estimated hunger may have killed 50,000 children in 2017, a figure that was based on a calculation that around 30 percent of severely malnourished children who didn’t receive proper treatment likely died. The high casualty numbers related to both strikes and the humanitarian situation has resulted in international condemnation for the man-made disaster.
Allegations of war crimes have been made against the multiple parties engaged in the conflict.
International & Regional Issues Resources
Yemen’s economic profile is one of the weakest in the world. Before Yemen’s internal conflict started in 2014, the state relied heavily on the declining oil and gas industry for revenue. The oil and gas industry allotted for 25% of the state’s GDP and 65% of the government’s revenue. President Hadi approved a reform program that would diversify the economy. The plan would boost businesses outside of the oil-sector and allow foreign investments as well as lower unemployment rates and raise the country’s GDP. The reform agenda has been nullified by the conflict.
Additionally, since the outbreak of the civil war, the private sector experienced new losses. Businesses were forced to lay off employees, and in 2014, over a quarter of the population — around 6.5 million people — were unemployed. With the consistent war, lack of jobs, and the inability to trade internationally, Yemen’s revenue significantly decreased despite the number of people still in the country and requiring essentials. Factoring this into Yemen’s consumption rates, the average household had a 121.3% consumption rate in 2017 while the import and export of goods had a combined rate of -30.6%. These numbers mean that civilians were consuming and requiring more products than were available. The figures also contribute to Yemen’s yearly budget shortfalls.
Factoring in all of the regional issues Yemen was experiencing, the state’s GDP took a massive blow, and from 2015-18, it decreased by $51 billion, resulting in a 2018 GDP of 26.9 billion dollars. Although the GDP dropped significantly, Yemen experienced a slight increase in GDP per capita from $819 in 2017 to $944 in 2018. As far as Yemen’s GDP growth rate, despite remaining in the negatives since 2013, the rates displayed a trend of rapid improvement until 2018 when the rate lowered by 0.7%. Economists project that Yemen’s GDP will grow from -2.70% to -0.7% by the end of 2019.
The World Bank estimated in 2017 that 62% of the population is impoverished; should the war continue, that number could increase to 75% of people living below the poverty line by the end of 2019. If Yemen’s war comes to an end, the country will face long-term problems such as high population growth rates, food, and water scarcity, and high unemployment. To put Yemen in a better position economically, the international community would have to assist significantly with the economic ‘rebirth’ of the state. With all of the efforts, there is still no guarantee that Yemen would move down on the Fragile State Index, where it is currently ranked the most fragile state in the world.
The population of Yemen was 28.5 in the summer of 2018. Yemen’s population has increased by nearly 2 million since 2017 and continues to rise by about 2.5% per year. Yemenis are typically of Arab descent, but significant minorities exist of Africans in the west (4%), South Asians in the south (2%), and Europeans in metropolitan areas (1%). Some have immigrated in search of work while others are ancestors of European colonists.
In spite of the rapid population growth, nearly 20 million Yemenis are food insecure, and at least 50,000 children are experiencing acute malnutrition. In addition to a significant lack of food and proper nutrition, Yemen has a massive cholera epidemic. The World Health Organization reported that 96% (or 22 out of 23) of Yemen’s governorates were affected by cholera. The report mentioned at least 1.1 million cases of cholera, averaging about 2,600 cases a week. Although cholera has spread at an alarming pace, the mortality rates related to cholera are low. Out of the millions of cases, about 2,300 people died — about three deaths a week. Recently, doctors in Yemen have reported an extensive outbreak of diphtheria and dengue fever. Diphtheria has caused many deaths, and most reported casualties were children. Both illnesses are spreading quickly, and effective vaccinations are blocked because airports are closed and in rebel-held territory. The inability to provide aid and medication to hospitals has also affected the health of newborns and pregnant women. Maternal and newborn health is such a problem in Yemen that the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) warned the system is ‘on the brink of total collapse.’ The organization’s statistics show that one woman and six newborns die every two hours due to complications during pregnancy or labor. The conflict has also prevented women from reaching hospitals, leading to an increasing number of home births, again, without the proper tools and medication, the lives of women and babies are being put at risk.
The educational system experienced many years of turmoil as the new united Yemen was forming in the early 1990s. The Yemeni government has increased emphasis on education by allocating anywhere from 14% to 20% of the annual budget to educational development. The Yemeni government provides universal, compulsory, and free education for ages six through fifteen. There are two levels of education: basic and secondary. Basic school encompasses the first nine years and secondary school provides an additional three years of study. Students must pass an exam in order to receive their General Secondary Education Requirement Certificate. Yemen is home to seven universities: Sana’a University, University of Science and Technology Sana’a, University of Aden – Faculty of Education, TCL Yemen – Tayba Center for Languages, Queen Arwa University, Al-Ahgaff University, and the Lebanese International University.
At the beginning of the 2019-20 school year, many children did not return to school because of the patterns of excessive bombings, airstrikes, and gunfire. UNICEF says an estimated 2 million children are out of school, and the amount of students at risk of dropping out is even higher, at 3.7 million. Students that go to school risk being killed in crossfire on the journey to and from school. They also face the chance that their school may be the target in an airstrike. In higher education, though many universities are closed, the schools that remain open are met with the challenge of preventing Houthi scholars from joining faculty. Many Houthi fighters believe that inserting themselves in the realm of higher education will allow them to spread propaganda using university resources. Education gaps have long-term effects on human capital and the economy because low-skilled workers have limited job prospects; thus, the current learning interruptions could affect generations to come.
Population of Yemen
Population Growing Rate (per year)
The dominant religion in Yemen is Islam and much of the constitution is based on Sharia law. People follow either the Shafii Order of Sunni Islam (one of the earliest schools of Islamic thought which emphasized the importance of consensus and analogies in defining law), or the Zaydi Order of Shia Islam (a branch of Shia Islam first taught by Zayd ibn ’Ali). The Sunnis are mostly located in the south and the Shia population is concentrated in the north with each group representing nearly 50% of the population. There is a small minority of about 3,000 Christians, less than 100 Jews, and about 40 Hindus. Freedom of religion is not expressly granted in the constitution, but the government typically does not hinder the private practice of religion. However, conversion from Islam and the proselytization of Muslims is illegal.
The culture of Yemen has been influenced by two factors—religion and history. Yemen has a distinct cultural tradition with influences from Arabian, African, and east Asian sources. One such influence comes from Africa in the form of Qat. This small leaf provides a euphoric feeling when chewed and is common throughout the Arabian Peninsula, especially Yemen. In addition, Indian customs and traditions are evident in cities like Aden where Indian architecture and ancient Hindu temples can be seen.
Yemen offers an array of food which differs from what is commonly found in the surrounding area. Among these are Zhug, a spicy sauce used in many Yemeni dishes, and Salta, a traditional lunchtime soup.
The sexes are segregated in Yemen, and girls’ and women’s lives are bound by religion and tribal traditions. The country has gained attention for its practice of child marriage; there is no legal minimum age set for marriage so it us up to families to make their preferred arrangements. Nadia Alkowkabani has recently become a rising star through her novel, “It’s Just Love”, which details the difficult struggle of fighting against traditionally arranged marriages. Conversely, women have been very active in Yemeni civil society through NGOs and political engagement. Tawakkol Karman, a journalist, politician, and human rights activist, was awarded the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize for her leadership role in the generally peaceful Arab Spring uprisings in Yemen. She has been called the “Iron Woman” and “Mother of the Revolution” by Yemenis for her role in the demonstrations; as a co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, she became the first Yemeni, the first Arab woman, and the second Muslim woman to win a Nobel Prize. Karman is the also second youngest Nobel Peace Laureate to date.
Art is an omnipresent feature of Yemeni culture. Yemen has a rich history of architectural beauty, with many of the most prominent structures scattered throughout the capital of Sana’a, such as the Al-Sabahi residential buildings.
Yemen also has a selection of aspiring painters and poets. Kheira al Hindi is a Yemeni painter who draws and paints portraits of women in daily life. She has displayed her paintings in small galleries throughout Yemen. Poetry is another popular form of expression in the country. Yemeni poets have been featured on television where works often depict themes of national unity, national loyalty, and the condemnation of violence and terrorism. The 2011 winner of the UAE reality television poetry competition show, Prince of Poets, was Yemeni scholar Abdul Aziz al Zoraei, who wrote a series of poems on Yemeni politics.
Yemen is also home to several prominent museums. The National Museum, housed in one of the former Imam’s palaces, features exhibitions which showcase Islamic scripts, craft, agriculture, and archaeology in Yemen. The Taiz National Museum was located in the last residence of Imam Ahmed, and offered a look into his personal life as everything in the building has been left as it was on the night he died in 1962. However, the structure was destroyed during recent Houthi shelling.
Yemen’s art has been taken abroad over the past few years. In a skatepark in London, Yemeni artist, Murad Subay, spray-painted a “starving boy listlessly picking at his hands.” Subay paints the harsh realities of Yemen’s war in London for people that to gain insight on the conflict. Yemen’s. In November 2019, Subay took his artistic skills to the streets of Paris, unveiling his piece “Last Dance of the Dead.” The 10-foot-high mural shows three dangling bodies on a fire-red background. The mural was in response to France’s weapons sales to the Saudi coalition. Domestically, Yemeni artist, Haifa Subay paints the experiences of the war from different lenses. She focuses on young women’s demands for education and the reality of destruction by landmines that are spread across the desert floor. Whether abroad or in Yemen, artists use many mediums to denounce the war and call for the establishment of peace.
The music of Yemen has been influenced by its history, and the traditional folk music, homayni, remains popular. It is played during festivals and ceremonies, as well as in casual home settings. Homayni has poetic lyrics and is played with drums. Some pieces of Yemeni folk music can be up to several hours long, and Qat is sometimes chewed during the performances to help stimulate creativity. Ayoob Tarish Absi is a famous Yemeni singer and melodist from the area of Al-Aboos in the Ta’izz Governorate. Ayoob composed the song “United Republic”, which became the national anthem of the Republic of Yemen.
Hip hop and pop music are rapidly growing in popularity. The hip hop outbreak in Yemen is often associated with the influence of Hajaj Abdulqawi Masaed, best known as “AJ”, an American-Yemeni rapper producing music since 1997. The production of Yemeni hip hop music increased greatly with the onset of the 2011 Yemeni Arab Spring revolution. Hip hop and rap music have been used to mobilize the youth into protests against the government as the lyrics are usually political and criticize the government.
Yemen is the home to many architectural and religious sites. There are ruins dating back to its early history such as the Cisterns of Tawila built around 155 BCE, and mosques like the Great Mosque of Sana’a built during the rule of the Rashidun caliphs (6th century CE). Another important religious site is the Tomb of the Prophet Hud. Located 140 km (87 miles) to the northeast of Seiyun city in the Hadramaut region, this tomb is a popular pilgrimage destination as it marks the resting place of Hud, an ancient prophet venerated in Islam.
Another popular site is Aden Port, which the British controlled until the period of decolonization in the 1960s. Aden is the mid-way point between Europe and the Far East, and is situated along the Suez Canal trade route. Tourism in Aden is centered on the harbor where miles of long, sandy beaches meet clear, blue seas. There are several nearby marketplaces that offer spices, clothes, or jewelry.
Soccer, basketball, golf, water sports, and racket ball are among the most popular sports in Yemen. Among these, soccer is the most popular. Several city and regional clubs have been organized such as the Al-Ahli Sana’a team of Sana’a and the Shabab Al Bayda’ team of the city of Al Bayda’, so players can compete and the best represent Yemen in international arenas. However, Yemen has only had moderate success in international soccer tournaments. So far, its highest FIFA world ranking has been 90 out of 207 teams.
Yemen also has a significant martial arts following. Mohammed Hussein Al-Ashwal is the most well-known Yemeni practitioner of the wushu, or kung fu style and has won four international gold medals. Tennis is also growing in popularity. The Yemen Tennis Federation has expanded the outreach of tennis programs to youth throughout the country by setting up training camps and holding competitions such as the Yemen Davis Cup. Young Yemeni tennis players have had some success in international competitions, as players Mo’amen and Hussein Hassan won gold medals in the 2006 West Asia Championship.