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c. 208 BCE
Massinisa becomes king of Eastern Numidian Massyli (east of current Algeria), succeeding his father Gala. He establishes the capital of his kingdom in Cirta (present-day Constantine, Algeria). He will die in 146 BCE during the siege of Carthage by Rome.
Rome destroys the Phoenician settlement along the North African coast after a prolonged conflict.
Death of Saint Antony, an Egyptian Coptic monk and pioneer of ascetic monasticism.
Rome falls to the Visigoths, throwing Europe into a period of great instability.
Death of Imru’u-l-Qays, who is later recognized by Prophet Muhammad and by Arab literary critics of the ancient Basra school (Iraq) as the most distinguished poet of pre-Islamic times. He is the author of one of the seven Mu’allaqat [ suspended poems ], which are among the most important works in Arabic literary history.
Birth of the Prophet Muhammad in Mecca in the Hijaz region in the NW of the Arabian Peninsula. Having lost his father, Abdullah, at a young age he was first put in the care of his grandfather ‘Abd al-Muttalib, then of his uncle Abu Talib, who raises him and later becomes his mentor and protector. Abu Talib is the father of the Muhammad’s cousin, Ali, who will become an important figure in the history and early literature of the Muslim Shi’a sect. A genealogical chart can be found here.
According to Islamic belief, during the lunar month of Ramadan the archangel Gabriel reveals the first verses of the Qur’an to Prophet Muhammad on Hira’, the mountain on which the Prophet spent time in meditation. Muslims believe that these revelations are God’s final message to mankind, never to be superceded by another, and that God chose Muhammad as his final messenger and instructed him to spread the message of Islam. The month of Ramadan is celebrated every year, in remembrance of these revelations.
Muhammad and his followers flee from Mecca to Medina (known at the time as Yathrib) to escape increased persecution from the non-believers of Mecca, who are thought to have plotted to kill him. This episode in Islamic history is known as Hijra(migration) . During his early years in Medina, Muhammad receives revelations offering guidance on the social and economic relations between individuals. A small state begins to form, and the Islamic community ( Ummah ) acquires a self-conscious identity. For this reason, the date of Hijra becomes the start of the Islamic calendar.
A series of small battles in Badr and Uhud among other places, between the people of Mecca and Muhammad’s followers in Medina, lead to the conquest of Mecca. Muhammad and his forces enter the city without bloodshed and establish political control over both Medina and Mecca.
Death of the Prophet. As Muhammad had not expressly designated anyone to succeed him, his companions split into two camps over his succession. One camp believes that Ali, the Prophet’s cousin, is entitled to succeed him on the basis of the bloodline; this group eventually evolved into the present-day Shi’i or Shi’a branch of Islam. The second camp, today’s Sunni branch, believes that succession should be decided by a process of election and consultation. Owing to this early bifurcation in Islam, the tradition of Sunni caliphs differs from the Shi’i imams. The second camp prevails and Abu Bakr is chosen to be the first Caliph ( Khalifa ), or successor. His Caliphate will last until 634, during which time rebellious tribes are reined in and the Arabian Peninsula is united.
The Muslims complete their conquest of what is now Syria, Palestine and Egypt, at the expense of the Byzantine empire. Garrison cities are built in Iraq: Basra, Kufa, Fustat, Mosul, Wasit. Amr Ibn al-Aas, commander of the invading armies in Egypt, erects the first mosque. The Arabs press on into North Africa. According to some historians, the Amazigh (Berber) inhabitants of the region, led by Queen Kahina, put up a staunch resistance to this first wave of Muslim conquest. However, local infighting weakens that resistance by the time of the second wave of conquest.
Assassination of the Caliph Omar. Othman ibn Affan succeeds him as the Third Caliph. During his reign, Othman urges the trusted companions of Prophet Muhammad to come to a consensus on what constitutes the exact text of the Holy Qur’an. This agreed-upon orthodox collection of Qur’anic texts becomes the undisputed holy book of Islam.
Othman is murdered. He is succeeded by Ali, the Prophet’s cousin and a candidate for the original succession back in 632. However, not everybody is willing to accept Ali’s rule, and the first fitnah (conflict among believers; civil war) ensues. Aisha, the Prophet’s widow, and several other companions lead a rebellion against Ali for failing to avenge Othman’s death. Mu’awiyah, the governor of Syria and a member of Othman’s clan, claims control over the caliphate.
The parties to the succession controversy agree to arbitration, but it is inconclusive. A small, radical group known as the Khawarij or Kharijites secedes from Ali’s camp because they view both Mu’awiyah’s claim and Ali’s submission to arbitration as religiously unacceptable acts; hence the authority of both men is rejected. This doctrine will be resurrected by Islamic radicals in the 20th century. The Kharijites are sometimes called the Puritans of Islam, as they placed particular importance on preserving the purity of mind and body; they were highly critical of Muslims who did not follow their path, but at the same time surprisingly tolerant of contemporary non-Muslims. A sub-sect, the Azraqites , were known as particularly brutal in meting out righteous justice against fellow Muslims. See, also, this reading on divisions in Islam.