Palestine

GEOGRAPHY & ENVIRONMENT

Palestine is located at the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, to the south of Lebanon and to the west of Jordan. Palestine, also known as the Occupied Territories, consists of the West Bank and the non-contiguous Gaza Strip. The separated Gaza Strip lies along the Mediterranean coast just to the east of Egypt; the two areas are separated by the state of Israel. The West Bank, so called because it borders the west bank of the Jordan River, generally has a rugged mountainous terrain with some vegetation in the west and is somewhat barren in the east. The West Bank, including East Jerusalem, has a land area of 5,640 square kilometers plus a water area of 220 square kilometers, consisting of the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea. The area of the West Bank is landlocked. The Gaza Strip has an arid climate, while the terrain is flat or rolling, with sand dunes near the Mediterranean coast.

Palestine’s climate for the greater part of the year is pleasant. Winter lasts for three months, from mid-December to mid-March, and can be severe with temperatures often below freezing and up to 80% humidity on many days throughout the season. During the remainder of the year, the climate is temperate, with the hottest weather in the months of July and August. The summer heat eased by breezes coming from the Mediterranean Sea, and though hot in the daytime, temperatures cool down significantly at night.

Palestine’s environmental concerns are man-made and intertwined with the area’s geopolitical challenges. Under the Oslo peace agreement, Israel retained overall control of water from the West Bank. Most significantly, Israel’s occupation of the West Bank since 1967 has affected Palestinians’ access to water. In the 1967 war Israel gained exclusive control of the waters of the West Bank and the Sea of Galilee. Those resources – the West Bank’s mountain aquifer and the Sea of Galilee – give Israel about 60% of its fresh water, a billion cubic meters per year. Heated arguments are ongoing about the rights to the mountain aquifer. In 2010, the allocation was disproportionate, and remains so today: Israel, and Israeli settlements, take about 80% of the aquifer’s flow, leaving the Palestinians with 20%. However, only about 14 percent of the water from the mountain aquifer is accessible to Palestinians in the West Bank because of dried out wells and poor infrastructure. The Palestinian Water Authority is completely dependent on Israel as the main supplier of water.  Palestinians must buy additional water supplies from Mekorot, Israel’s water company, to meet the increasing demand of its population. Because the diminishing supply of water from aquifers and the Sea of Galilee are insufficient to meet the needs of Israel’s population, today, about 60 percent of Israel’s domestic water demand is met through desalination – the process by which salt and other impurities are removed from seawater to produce potable water. The downside of the proliferation of desalination plants is the accumulative effect of large quantities of salt being dumped back into the sea as a by-product of the desalination process. With an excess of water now available to Israel, the concept of water diplomacy is gaining traction as the region explores the possibility of overcoming political rifts through science. 

Appropriation of land and water for use in Israeli settlements has also affected the agricultural and livestock output of Arabs. Moreover, Israel’s barrier wall frequently blocks access to Palestinian property as well as communal land shared by villages. The loss of grazing and farm land has been detrimental to traditional sources of livelihood for Palestinians.

In addition, the United Nations issued a report in 2015 that argued that the Gaza Strip could become “uninhabitable” within five years as a result of Israeli military operations and a nearly decade-long blockade that have crippled its economy and infrastructure. The coastal enclave is home to around two million Palestinians whose access to the Mediterranean is regulated. Furthermore consecutive conflicts between Gaza’s leadership Hamas and Israel has resulted in the destruction of much of Gaza’s water, sewage and electrical infrastructure. Fully repairing the infrastructure is virtually impossible due to restrictions on building materials associated with the ongoing blockades by Israel and Egypt. Gaza sewage is contaminating groundwater sources and has even been found on nearby Israeli beaches. Additionally, the over-pumping of water from Gaza’s underground natural aquifers has led to seawater seeping in, making it too salty to consume. Only 10% of Gaza’s population has access to safe drinking water, compared to 90% in the West Bank or about 85% in MENA in general.

After a seven-year hiatus, the Israeli-Palestinian Joint Water Committee (JWC), established under Article 40 of the 1995 Oslo Accord, resumed its meetings on May 16, 2017. A new mechanism was developed to accelerate the implementation of infrastructure projects — such as supply lines, tanks, water and sewage networks, water pumping stations and treatment plants — in many Palestinian areas in the West Bank. Concerned by the asymmetry in the JWC functioning, Palestinians had refused to sit in the committee since 2010.

Geography & Environment Resources

HISTORY & GOVERNMENT

The place of origin of Judaism and Christianity, Palestine comprises a geographical area, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, that is separated today by the state of Israel. At times throughout history, as a result of various conflicts, there have been border shifts. Today, Palestine refers to the Gaza Strip and the occupied West Bank, and is recognized as a de jure sovereign state in the Middle East.

Along with IraqKuwaitSyriaLebanonJordanIsrael, Cyprus, Egypt, the southeastern area of Turkey and western parts of Iran, Palestine makes up what was known as the Fertile Crescent or the cradle of civilization. Some of the earliest human settlements thrived there as a result of the agricultural and water resources provided by the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. These civilizations flourished scientifically and creatively as well, developing writing, glass, and the use of irrigation.

The history of this land is fraught with turmoil and complexity. In 1250 BCE, the Israelites began conquering the region, which led to the reign of King Solomon in 961 BCE. The Babylonians conquered the kingdom in 586 BCE and exiled the Jewish people. Seventy years later, the Jews began returning. What followed was centuries of conquest by various empires beginning with the Greeks in 333 BCE, the Jews in 165 BCE, the Romans in 63 BCE, the Jewish Diaspora in 70 CE, the Muslims in 638 CE, the Crusaders in 1099 CE, back to the Muslims in 1187 CE, and eventually the Ottomans in 1517 CE. During Ottoman rule, particularly in the late 19th century, Zionist writers such as Theodor Herzl began emphasizing the need for a Jewish homeland as a result of increasing levels of anti-Semitism in Europe. Two possibilities were strongly considered: the United States and Palestine.

During World War I, the Ottomans joined the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria. The Allied Powers (France, Britain, Russia, United States) supported Arab uprisings throughout the Ottoman Empire that would ultimately lead to its weakening and end. After the defeat of the Central Powers by the Allied forces, a series of private agreements resulted in the division of the area into sovereign states with mandate rulers.

In 1915, the High Commissioner of Egypt, Sir Henry McMahon, engaged in secret correspondence with Hussein Bin Ali, the Sharif of Hejaz and Mecca. Sharif is a title meaning noble and refers to descendants of the Prophet Mohammed’s grandson, Hassan Ibn Ali. McMahon expressed Great Britain’s promise of eventual recognition and support of an Arab state whose boundaries would be determined by Hussein. These exchanges, now known as the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence (or, alternately, as the McMahon-Hussein Correspondence) lasted from July 14, 1915 to January 30, 1916. In exchange for Arab support of the war efforts through revolts against the Ottomans, the British would recognize Arab independence. This commitment was not honored.

Meanwhile, also in 1915, British parliamentarian, Sir Mark Sykes, and a French diplomat, Francois Georges-Picot, looking toward a collapsed Ottoman Empire, carved up the Middle East into hypothetical spheres of influence under either British or French control. The Sykes-Picot agreement, drafted behind closed doors unbeknownst to other world leaders, would give the northern part of the Middle East, consisting of Christian enclaves in Syria and Lebanon to France, while Great Britain would have authority over southern territory including Palestine and Iraq.

In 1917, however, British Foreign Minister Arthur James Balfour promised the Zionist Federation of Great Britain “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.” The Balfour Declaration of a homeland for the Jewish diaspora in what was believed to be a pre-emptory concession to the United States’ President Woodrow Wilson who most certainly would have disagreed with the Sykes-Picot redesign of the Middle East.

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Upon the conclusion of World War I, the people of greater Syria were unwilling to cede control to the French as outlined in the Sykes-Picot agreement. In April 1920, the Allied leaders of Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan swiftly convened at the San Remo conference to discuss the allocation of mandates for administration of the former Ottoman-ruled lands of the Middle East. Precise state borders would be determined at a later date. Ultimately, as a result of the San Remo conference, the Middle East lands of present day Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Palestine, Syria, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia were divided into different regions under control of France and the United Kingdom with some variations from the original Sykes-Picot Agreement. Some of the current borders in the Middle East stem from this arrangement between western powers.

A large number of Jews began immigrating to Palestine in response to the Balfour Declaration to establish a Jewish state. The Jewish population in Britain was extremely politically active in lobbying for continued support of the Zionist aspiration of a homeland based in Palestine. The Arab population in Palestine, previously the majority population, began protesting this development of a Jewish state in what the Arabs felt was historically their land. These demonstrations eventually turned violent and British authorities in mandate Palestine responded aggressively to the uprisings. Two Zionist groups, the Irgun, which would evolve into the Israeli Defense Forces, and Haganah, a militia, began attacking Palestinian civilians as well as British forces. Continued violence and upheaval resulted in the White Paper of 1939, a policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain. The White Paper abandoned the idea of partitioning Palestine but promoted the creation of an independent Palestine to be governed by Palestinian Arabs and Jews proportionate to their numbers in the population by 1939. In addition, the White Paper limited the number of Jewish immigrants to Palestine to 75,000 for the period of 1940-1944, with a quota of 10,000 per year and a 25,000 supplementary allowance, after which further immigration would require the permission of the Arab majority population. Finally, there were restrictions placed on the rights of Jews to buy land from Arabs.

The British made a promise in the White Paper that a Jewish state would not be formed in Palestine. The Jewish populations, especially organized groups like the Irgun, were incensed by this decision but with the outbreak of World War II, their focus shifted to other, more immediate concerns facing the European Jewish population.

During World War II, the Irgun and Haganah fought aside the Allied forces against the Axis powers. The militant groups gained considerable combat experience and support because of their involvement. After the defeat of the Axis, the Irgun and other Zionist organizations shifted their focus back to the idea of Palestine as a Jewish homeland. The Irgun continued targeting British military positions culminating in the bombing of the King David Hotel, a 5-star hotel in Jerusalem, on June 22, 1946. The attack resulted in the deaths of 91 people along with 46 injured at the hotel, which, at the time, was the central office of British authorities in Palestine. In 1947, the UN released Resolution 181, which recommended the partition of Palestine into Arab and Jewish states, inciting more conflict. Great Britain grew weary of the ongoing animosity and violence; its resources were exhausted as a result of the devastation caused by World War II and the decision was made to leave the region and hand over control to the United Nations. The removal of British forces allowed the Irgun and Haganah to force Palestinians out of certain areas of Palestine. By May 14, 1948, the last British soldiers had left and Israel declared itself an independent state. This was further complicated by the December 1948 UN Resolution 194 which declares the right of return for Palestinian refugees.

Following Israel’s formation, the surrounding Arab states attacked Israel. However, the Israeli forces, mainly the Irgun, had considerable combat experience from World War II and received arms and support from the United States. The Arab forces were pushed back and Israel remained an independent state. The defeat of the Arab armies and the Deir Yassin massacre (Irgun forces killed 107 villagers including women and children on April 9, 1948) terrified the Palestinians, resulting in large populations of refugees fleeing into Lebanon, Egypt, and Jordan.

In 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) had been formed and Yasser Arafat soon became its leader. The PLO became the primary force in combating Israel and was based chiefly in Jordan. In 1967, the Six Day War began as Israel launched preemptive strikes against Egypt (who was attempting to mobilize its air force). Egypt, Syria, and Jordan launched attacks but all three were defeated resulting in Israel nearly doubling in size as a result of territorial gains. The United Nations condemned both sides and pressured Israel to withdraw forces from the land it seized. Israel withdrew from certain areas but remained in control of East Jerusalem, Gaza, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights. In the aftermath of the war, UN Resolution 242 was released, calling for a two-state solution. To this day, 242 provides the parameters for the recommendation of a two-state solution, though the two-state solution has become increasingly improbable due to political circumstances.

Meanwhile in Jordan, tensions began to strain as the PLO began competing with Jordanian forces for authority in certain regions. This culminated in Black September in 1970 when the Jordanian military and PLO forces waged open war resulting in thousands of deaths and the expulsion of the PLO from Jordan. The PLO subsequently established a headquarters in Lebanon above the Israeli border.

In 1974, Yasser Arafat made his first appearance at the United Nations where he famously proclaimed, “Today I have come bearing an olive branch and a freedom fighter’s gun. Do not let the olive branch fall from my hand.” However, soon after the speech, the Likud, a right-wing Israeli political party who believed in extending Israel over all of the Palestinian territories, came into power. Their ideology and continued expansion of settlements resulted in a stunted peace process. In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon in order to force the PLO out of the region. Israeli forces quickly reached Beirut and established a ceasefire to allow the PLO to leave. However, Israeli troops surrounded two major Palestinian refugee camps, Sabra and Shatila, while protecting the Phalangists, a Christian militant group. During the occupation of Sabra and Shatila, the Israeli troops facilitated the massacre of thousands of Palestinian men, women, and children in the camps by blocking refugees from leaving and allowing the Phalangists to enter the camps. This resulted in an estimated 3,000 civilian deaths and the resignation of Israel’s defense minister, Ariel Sharon, who would later be elected as the 11th prime minister of Israel in 2001

By 1987, Palestinians began boycotting, protesting, and causing civil disobedience throughout Israel and the Palestinian territories. This spread throughout the West Bank and Gaza and is known as the First Intifada (uprising). The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) responded to these mostly nonviolent protests with brute force resulting in over 1,000 Palestinian civilian deaths over a five year period.

In the early 1990s, the peace process between Palestine and Israel began to grow. Initially, progress was stalled by Israel’s refusal to recognize the PLO. However, the election of the left-wing Labor party revitalized the process. The secret Oslo Accords made significant progress while public negotiations failed. The agreement resulted in the signing of the Declaration of Principles between Israeli Prime Minister Rabin and Yasser Arafat in front of an audience of 400 million people in 1993. By 1994, Israel agreed to withdraw military forces from the West Bank and Gaza (excluding areas of Israeli settlements). One year later, Oslo II was signed dividing the West Bank into 7 percent Palestinian control, 21 percent joint control, and the remainder controlled by Israel. This agreement angered extremists on both sides; radical Palestinians did not want to accept such a small proportion of the land while radical Israelis did not want to give up any “Jewish” land. This agreement resulted in the assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin by a Jewish religious extremist on November 4, 1995. The Palestinian Authority (PA) was established in 1994 with the hope of creating an independent Palestinian state and economy, but ineffective leadership, political party infighting, the expansion of illegal Israeli settlements and the building of the separation wall have made this goal increasingly difficult to achieve.

Relations became strained in 1996 between Israel and Palestine as the Palestinian Islamic group Hamas began engaging in suicide bombings in Israel as a response to Israeli forces launching strikes in Lebanon. The election of Israeli, right-wing leader Benjamin “Bibi” Netanyahu as prime minister further strained relations as he began building settlements in Palestinian territories and campaigned against the Oslo peace deals. In 1999, Netanyahu lost reelection to Ehud Barak, leader of the Labor party. Frustration among the Palestinians began to grow as peace talks broke down. Barak and Arafat could not come to agreement over Jerusalem and the right of return for Palestinian refugees. Soon after, the right-wing Likud party leader, Ariel Sharon, toured the Temple Mount, the holiest site for Muslims in Palestine and Israel and the 3rd most important holy site for Muslims, while most Palestinians were restricted access to the Al Aqsa Mosque rather than the entire compound. This event combined with the stalled peace progress sparked the Second Intifada, a much more violent uprising than the first.

Barak stepped down as prime minister and Sharon took his place. Sharon emphasized using strength against the Palestinians, which became a popular decision as the Second Intifada become increasingly violent. Israeli strikes in Palestine and Palestinian rocket attacks against Israel both intensified. The Palestinian death toll began to soar as efforts by the U.S. to broker peace continued to fail. In 2002, intensified attacks by Palestinian forces resulted in Israel re-occupying the West Bank. Israel invaded several cities throughout the West Bank and began constructing its barrier wall in the West Bank thus isolating the Palestinians and restricting access to essential farmlands. According to Aljazeera in 2014, the full route, “as outlined in the blueprint approved by Israel’s Ministry of Defense, is 422 miles of zigzagging curves and loops, making it more than twice as long as the 199-mile-long Green Line. More than one-fifth of the planned barrier has not yet been constructed.”

Palestinians are required to obtain a permit to access their land on the other side of the barrier. The barrier wall has many entrances, or checkpoints, where travelling Palestinians are required to produce proper authorization for their vehicle, as well as themselves, to enter after careful inspection from Israeli security who issue fines for infractions. Each checkpoint has specific hours of operation, only allowing entrance during a certain window of time. Such rigid restrictions prevent many from obtaining basic human resources and aid including food, employment, education and health services.

Arafat was under international pressure to rein in militant groups and reform the Palestinian Authority. Mahmoud Abbas became prime minister of Palestine in 2003 as Israel and the U.S. refused to continue negotiations with Arafat due to his use and support of violence. Abbas achieved a temporary ceasefire of hostilities from Palestinian militant groups. However, internal disputes resulted in Ahmed Qurei replacing Abbas for brief periods of time in 2003 and later in 2005. Prospects of peace began to crumble as attacks resumed from both sides.

In April 2004, Israel began removing settlers and troops from Gaza and the West Bank. However, construction of the barrier wall in the West Bank continued despite international pressure against the project. The International Court of Justice in The Hague pronounced the barrier illegal but this did not deter Israel. PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat died of a blood disorder in November 2004; he was replaced by Mahmoud Abbas, who is also the Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority and the 2nd President of the State of Palestine, as a member of the Fatah party. Abbas resigned as chairman of the PLO in August 2015. Abbas and Sharon reached a ceasefire agreement and Israel continued their process of withdrawing from Palestine.

Rival Governments: Hamas & Fatah

The last time Palestinians engaged in general elections was in 2006. In a shock result, Hamas, which had entered the elections for the first time since its establishment in 1987, won a majority in the Palestinian parliament. This development was a blow to Palestinian unity, particularly to ruling party Fatah, and more importantly to the United States which had been an advocate of the elections but failed to consider Hamas a viable threat. U.S. and Israeli officials had repeatedly stated that they would not work with a Palestinian Authority that included Hamas, which both countries and the European Union have designated a terrorist organization. Hamas’ political role and external constraints posed by the terrorist designation have impeded peace negotiation efforts.

The Washington Post reported at the time that “Hamas claimed 76 of the 132 parliamentary seats, giving the party at war with Israel the right to form the next cabinet under the Palestinian Authority’s president, Mahmoud Abbas.” Fatah, which had dominated the legislature since the previous elections a decade earlier and the Palestinian cause for far longer, won 43 seats. The remaining seats went to a collection of nationalist, leftist and independent parties. After the election, Prime Minister Ahmed Qureia, another Fatah leader, resigned his post along with his cabinet as reports of Hamas’s victory began to circulate, acknowledging that Hamas had earned the right to form the next cabinet. Abbas retained his four-year presidential term which he’d won during elections the prior year. His term as president expired in 2009, but he has extended his authority for two additional 4-year terms in 2009 and 2013. Hamas refuses to view Abbas as the rightful leader.

Hamas ousted Fatah from Gaza in 2007 after the former refused to recognize the result of the elections. Subsequently, Israel tightened its blockade on the territory, and rocket-fire and Israeli counter-raids continued. Israel has launched three military campaigns in Gaza since then: Operation Cast Lead in December 2008, Operation Pillar of Defense in November 2012, and Operation Protective Edge in July 2014.

Hamas has been in control of Gaza until now. There have been intermittent attempts at a coalition government. In September 2017, Hamas dissolved its administrative committee which runs the Gaza Strip and expressed its willingness to hold general elections in a bid to reconcile with rival Fatah political party. Hamas used the committee to run the internal affairs of the Gaza Strip, after accusing the Fatah-ruled Palestinian Authority (PA) of neglecting to do so. In turn, the PA accused Hamas of using this administrative committee, which was announced in March, as a shadow government” to further entrench political division and derail the prospect of a unity government. Critics claimed the disbanding of the committee was a public relations stunt meant to force the PA to make its own concessions in exchange, particularly since social services and other internal affairs will still be administered by Hamas even without the committee.

The adversarial relationship between the Abbas government and Hamas has occasionally resulted in what Hamas considers to be collective punishment of Gazan citizens. In April, Abbas began imposing a number of measures on the besieged Gaza Strip including reducing PA payments for the electricity supplied by Israel to the enclave, reducing medicine shipments and medical referrals, slashing salaries of Gaza’s civil servants and forcing thousands of them in to early retirement.

UN Recognition

In November 2012, the United Nations General Assembly officially upgraded the status of Palestine from observer status to “non-member observer state,” with the resolution passing with 138 votes in favor, 9 opposed, and 41 abstentions. The United States threatened to use its veto power to prevent a similar action in the United Nations Security Council. The de facto international recognition of the State of Palestine has allowed Palestine the opportunity to pursue legal claims against Israel in international courts, although Palestine has declined this opportunity citing the desire to work out direct negotiations with Israel instead. On January 3, 2013, in response to these developments, the PA officially changed its name to the State of Palestine.

Peace Talks

A complete history of peace negotiations is beyond the scope of this overview but you will find some resources for further exploration in the resources section below.

As noted above, peace negotiations remain difficult between Fatah and Hamas due to fundamental differences but some progress has been made. The appointment of John Kerry as the U.S. Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017 led to renewed peace talks. Talks formally resumed in August 2013 with a nine-month timetable set for the resumption of all final status issues. In September 2014, a Fatah-Hamas unity government was established with an agreement that borders and other contentious issues would be managed by the United Nations. The peace talks, however, were not successful.

Regarding the effectiveness of peace talks, continued Israeli settlement building in the West Bank and East Jerusalem has undermined the process. Robust settlement activity has impacted the population balance in historically Palestinian Arab-dominated areas, encroaching on internationally disputed territory. Approximately, 400,000 Israeli settlers reside in the West Bank, ranging in size from small farming communities and outposts to small cities. This number does not include Jewish residents of East Jerusalem.

American President Trump has expressed interest in resolving the conflict and within the first year of his term, had spoken openly about facilitating talks between the parties involved as opposed to advocating for a particular position. He has stated it is up to the Arabs and Israelis to choose their own path; many Israeli politicians have been encouraged by this departure from the typical two-state solution that has been pushed in the past which stipulates non-negotiable concessions on all sides. Trump has sent two of his advisors to meet with Palestinian and Israeli leadership several times in 2017.

The Refugee Situation

The refugee problem persists. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) provides services to over 1.5 million registered Palestinian refugees. This growing figure only represents roughly one third of the refugees, as the majority of refugees is unregistered. Currently, over 5 million Palestinian refugees are eligible for UNRWA services and shelter from the organization’s 58 recognized Palestine refugee camps in Jordan, Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Many of the approximately 527,000 registered Palestinian refugees living in Syria before the war have faced double displacement, forced to flee their homes because of the Civil War. Overcrowding and access to basic services are a major issue for refugees in camps, and beyond; for example, the Gaza Strip is the 5th most densely populated area of land in the world with 5,046 individuals per square kilometer.

Simmering Tensions

In the summer of 2014, three Israeli teenagers were killed in response to the killing of two Palestinian teenagers by Israeli forces. Following the death of the Israeli teenagers, a 16 year old Palestinian was abducted and burned to death by Israeli extremists. These events resulted in rocket fire into Israeli territories by Hamas militants which prompted Israel to begin Operation Protective Edge into Gaza (which included airstrikes, artillery, and a ground invasion). According to the New York Times, during this military operation, 3,834 Israeli strikes killed 1,881 Palestinians and 2,927 rockets from Gaza resulted in 67 Israeli deaths. A comprehensive timeline of the month long conflict can be found here.

Since mid-September 2015, there has been an increase in alleged attacks or attempted attacks by individual or groups of Palestinians against Jewish Israelis. Israeli forces have responded to the alleged attacks with live ammunition. The Palestinians’ tactics have included random stabbings and car-ramming attacks. As of May 2016, 28 Israelis had died in attacks while 176 Palestinians had been killed either after being identified as attack suspects or due to being caught in clashes with security forces. The disproportionate numbers in deaths have led some human rights groups to warn that Israel is using excessive force against Palestinians and that some of the incidents amounted to extrajudicial killings, according to one report. A Washington Post article on March 8, 2016 argues that “Palestinians say the violence stems from frustration at nearly five decades of Israeli rule over the West Bank and east Jerusalem. Israel says the violence is fueled by a campaign of Palestinian lies and incitement that is compounded on social media sites that glorify and encourage attacks.” Each side cites the right to defend itself with the current period of violence now in its second year.

Map of the growth of Israel and loss of Palestinian territory.

Sources used for this section include:

BBC’s Timeline of Palestine 
The British White Paper of 1939
Bushra, S. (2014, September 25). Fatah-Hamas agreement gives unity government control over Gaza. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
Institute for Middle East Understanding
Life in the Gaza Strip. (2014, July 14). Retrieved February 3, 2015.
Neep, D. (2015, January 3). Focus: The Middle East, Hallucination, and the Cartographic Imagination. Retrieved January 27, 2015, from
United Nations Refugee Reliefs and Works Agency, www.unrwa.org
Palestinian Authority officially changes name to ‘State of Palestine’ (2013, January 5). Retrieved February 4, 2015.
Tharoor, I. (2014, December 22). Map: The spread of Israeli settlements in the West Bank. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
Yourish, K., & Keller, J. (2014, August 8). The Toll in Gaza and Israel, Day by Day. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
Zand, B. (2014, January 31). Century of Violence: What World War I Did to the Middle East. Retrieved January 28, 2015.

Primary Sources

History & Government Resources

INTERNATIONAL & REGIONAL ISSUES

The current political status of the West Bank and Gaza is subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement of 1995, also known as the Oslo Accords. Permanent status is to be determined through further negotiations. Israel continues the construction of settlements and the separation barrier wall along parts of the 1949 Green Line that divides Israel and Palestine within the West Bank. Large sections of barrier walls often extend beyond the 1949 Green Line into territory captured in 1967. About 8.5% of the West Bank lies on the Israeli side of the barrier, mostly in East Jerusalem, with another 3.4% on the Israeli side of sections planned or under construction.

Settlement building in the West Bank remains a major obstacle to permanent peace agreements as does the continued blockade of the Gaza Strip by Israel, and intermittently by Egypt at the Rafah crossing. According to the Institute for Middle East Understanding (IMEU), as of March 2013 there were between 300,000 and 400,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, 200,000 in East Jerusalem, and 20,000 in the Golan Heights, compared to 2.6 million Palestinians in the West Bank, 250,000 in East Jerusalem, and 1.7 million in the Gaza Strip. Israel officially recognizes 130 separate settlements in the West Bank.

The issue of Palestinian refugees continues as well. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) estimates that there are roughly 449,957 refugees in Lebanon; 450,000 in Syria; and 2,097,338 in Jordan. These nations have encountered difficulty providing basic amenities for the refugees, and the migration of displaced Palestinians has changed the demographics of neighboring countries. Many Palestinians have faced further displacement due to regional instability attributed to the Islamic State. Palestinian Arabs in Jordan, many of whom have been granted Jordanian citizenship, are close to becoming the majority population over Jordanian Arabs.

Conflict about the waters of the Jordan River was a contributing factor to the Six-Day War when, starting in 1965, Syria attempted to divert some of its headwaters in collaboration with Lebanon and Jordan (Mehr, Farhang). The diversion works would have reduced the water availability for Israel’s carrier by about 35%, and Israel’s overall water supply by about 11%. In April 1967 Israel conducted air raids into Syria to halt this work, and two months later the Six Day War followed. The use of Jordan River’s water was cited as a cause of the war by Ariel Sharon; in his memoirs, he wrote that, “While the border disputes between Syria and ourselves were of great significance, the matter of water diversion was a stark issue of life and death.” Israel’s control of water sources, desalination technology and distribution undoubtedly has a role in the ongoing tensions. View the environment section above for more details.

Other information retrieved from CIA World Fact Book entries on the West Bank and Gaza.

International & Regional Issues Resources

ECONOMY

The Palestinian economy is almost entirely dependent on aid from foreign governments due to several factors inhibiting economic growth. Among these are the economic disruption from the continuing conflict with Israel, Israeli restrictions on economic activity, and the internal conflict between proponents of the PLO’s Fatah in the West Bank and the Islamist group Hamas in the Gaza Strip. The GDP per capita, as estimated by the CIA World Fact Book, is only $2,900. By comparison, the GDP per capita in Israel is around $32,200. Palestine also suffers from severe unemployment. The West Bank and Gaza Strip together have the world’s 13th highest unemployment rate at 37% for males and 50% for females.

SOCIETY

The Palestinian people are the modern descendants of the peoples who lived in Palestine for centuries, and who are, for the most part, culturally and linguistically Arab. According to the CIA World Fact Book, many are Palestinian refugees or internally displaced Palestinians, including: more than a million in the Gaza Strip, three-quarters of a million in the West Bank, and about a quarter of a million in Israel. Of the Palestinian population who live abroad, known as the Palestinian Diaspora, more than half are stateless (lacking citizenship in any country).

Palestinian Arabic is a subgroup of the broader Levantine Arabic dialect, a dialect of Arabic spoken throughout the areas of Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. Prior to the 7th century Islamic conquest and Arabization of the Levant, the primary languages spoken in Palestine among the predominately Christian and Jewish communities were Aramaic, Greek, and Syriac. Palestinian Arabic, like other variations of the Levantine dialect, exhibits influences in lexicon from Aramaic.

Since 1994, education in Palestine has been administered by the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MOEHE). Schools are typically either established by the PNA or UNRWA, and the MOEHE administers these with monetary support through the Ministry of Finance. Attendance is compulsory in Palestine from grades 1-10, and is typically divided into the preparatory stage (1-4) and empowerment stage (5-10). However, geographic constraints and the inability of some students to attend school make compulsory education unenforceable. Students can then continue to two years of secondary instruction in preparation for university studies. Palestine has several universities, including Al-Azhar University and Al-Aqsa University in Gaza, and Arab American University, Al-Quds University, and Birzeit University in the West Bank. Despite the challenges of lacking statehood, the educational system in Palestine has had moderate success. The literacy rate for Palestine is 92%, and enrollment in the empowerment stage of education is nearly 97%.

Literacy Rate

Enrollment in the Empowerment Stage of Education

Healthcare in Palestine is also administered through the PNA. The Ministry of Health provides an insurance plan for the Palestinian Territories, but in Gaza, this oversight has ceased since Hamas came into power. Foreign aid, taxes, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) all contribute financial support and supplies to the Palestinian healthcare system. The majority of services for Palestinian refugees is provided by UNRWA, which provides direct healthcare services for refugees in Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria, while allocating money for healthcare to refugees within Palestine. Movement restrictions, limitations on the flow of goods and supplies, and damage to Palestine’s healthcare infrastructure from years of fighting have all created serious barriers to improving the country’s quality of life. Because of these difficulties, many Palestinians seek treatment in Israeli hospitals across the border, paid for either by the PNA or at the patient’s expense.

Society Resources

RELIGION

Palestinians in the West Bank are predominantly Muslims (about 80-85%), the vast majority of whom are Sunnis. Palestinian Christians represent a shrinking minority (1-2.5%) due to lower birth rates and migration. Israeli settlement activity has brought the Jewish population to 12-14% in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. There are small minorities of other faiths including Greek Orthodox, Druze and Samaritans. In the Gaza Strip, the population is almost entirely Muslim (99%). The Jewish population of about 9,000 left the area in 2005 following Israel’s plan to completely disengage from the territory.

Culture Resources

CULTURE

Palestinian cultural contributions to the fields of art, literature, music, costume, and cuisine express a common Palestinian experience despite the physical separation between the Occupied Palestinian Territories, the Gaza Strip, Israel, and the Diaspora.

Food

Traditional Palestinian cuisine features Mediterranean dishes like falafel, kebabs, and maftoul. Tabikh Zahra is a traditional cauliflower stew which includes stewed beef, cauliflower, chickpeas, tomatoes, cumin, and olive oil. Knafeh is a shredded phyllo dough pastry featuring sweet cheese and spices with a sugar and rose water syrup topping. The city of Nablus, in the West Bank, is particularly famous for its knafeh. Recipes for these dishes and many others can be found in cookbooks such as Leila El-Haddad and Maggie Schmitt’s The Gaza Kitchen: A Palestinian Culinary Journey.

Clothing

Traditional Palestinian women’s clothes consist of long dresses with intricate embroidery and designs. Traditional men’s clothes include a standard thobe, and the keffiyeh. However, women also will wear the keffiyeh, at times, but mostly as a symbol of Palestinian resistance, for which the keffiyeh has become emblematic.

Art

Palestinian art varies across four main geographic centers: the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Israel; the Palestinian Diaspora in the Arab world; and Europe and the United States. Contemporary Palestinian art finds its roots in folk art and traditional Christian and Islamic painting popular in Palestine over the ages. Before 1948, Palestinian art typically portrayed strong religious themes, particularly focused on Islam. After 1948, nationalistic themes have predominated as Palestinian artists use diverse media to express and explore their identity and connections to the homeland.

In April of 2013, construction began on the Palestinian Museum, which will be the main museum in Palestine that is dedicated to Palestinian art and culture. It plans to host a variety of exhibitions, education and research programs, and cultural events featuring both Palestinian and non-Palestinian artists. The museum is located in Birzeit, which is 14 km, or about 8 miles north of the city of Ramallah. The project was led by Palestinian curator Jack Persekian, who resigned from the position in spring 2016, causing a delayed opening. The museum opened in June 2016, albeit without any exhibits or collections.

The Ethnographic and Art Museum at Birzeit University is a museum which features two main collections: The Palestinian Costumes, and The Tawfiq Canaan Amulet Collection.  The Virtual Gallery at Birzeit University is a leading art gallery in the Palestinian Territories and promotes visual art through exhibitions, training, and educational workshops. Its website is currently under construction.

Modern day art and music use the Palestinian resistance (to occupation) and daily struggles as  sources of inspiration. A wide range of mediums, hip-hop groups such as DAM and street artists like Banksy, articulate sentiments from Palestine in their work.

Film

Documentaries and films are frequently used to convey the Palestinian experience. The difficulty of everyday life in Palestine is a dominant theme in Palestinian film. These films, either produced in Palestine or abroad, seek to highlight the problems faced by ordinary Palestinians as they live and work in the region. As there are few cinemas in Palestine to view these films, Palestinian movies are often viewed in greater numbers regionally and internationally, particularly at film festivals. The Palestinian Film Festival in Australia is one such festival which is devoted to screening only films created in or about Palestine. Some of the best regarded films at this festival included Last Days in Jerusalem, Tears of Gaza, and Love During Wartime, a romantic tale of a Palestinian and an Israeli trying to stay together despite the difficult situation in Jerusalem.

Music

Palestinian music naturally reflects the unique Palestinian experience.  As might be expected, much of this music seeks to address the struggle with Israel, the longing for permanent peace, and love for the land of Palestine. One example of such a song is Baladi, Baladi (My Country, My Country), which has become the unofficial Palestinian national anthem:

Palestine, Land of the fathers,
To you, I do not doubt, I will return.
Struggle, revolution, do not die,
For the storm is on the land

A significant part of the Palestinian music tradition includes wedding songs and dancers. Wedding singers have been able to maintain the tradition of Palestinian songs while incorporating modern vocals and rhythms. Wedding singers draw from a repertoire of ceremonial material including henna songs sung at the henna ceremony, wedding processionals (zeffat), and popular dance songs.

Culture Resources

Sites

Jerusalem features several landmarks which hold great significance to all three major monotheistic faiths.

Al-Aqsa Mosque, known as “the Farthest Mosque,” is the third holiest site in Islam after the cities of Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia, and is located in the Old City of Jerusalem. The site on which the mosque sits, along with the Dome of the Rock, is also referred to as al-Haram ash-Sharif or “Noble Sanctuary”. Muslims believe that Muhammad was transported from the Sacred Mosque in Mecca to Al-Aqsa during the Night Journey.  According to Islamic tradition, the Night Journey occurred in the year 621 CE when Muhammad travelled in one night from Mecca to Jerusalem and visited previous prophets in heaven and learned of his status as the final prophet of Islam. Islamic tradition holds that Muhammad led prayers towards this site until the seventeenth month after the Muslim emigration to Medina, when God then directed him to turn toward the Ka’aba in Mecca. This same land is also known in Judaism as the Temple Mount, and is the holiest site in Judaism. The site of the Al-Aqsa mosque is generally accepted as the site where the First Temple was built by King Solomon (destroyed in 586 BCE), as well as the Second Temple, destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE.

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, also called the Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, or the Church of the Resurrection by Eastern Christians, is a church inside the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. The surrounding area is called Golgotha (the Hill of Calvary), and is thought to be the hill upon which Jesus was crucified. The Sepulchre itself is said to contain the place where Jesus was buried. The church has been one of the most important pilgrimage destinations since at least the 4th century as it is recognized by many Christians as the site of the resurrection of Jesus.

Located about 10 km (6 miles) outside of Jerusalem, the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is located on the site traditionally considered to be the birthplace of Jesus. This church’s original basilica was completed in 339 CE and destroyed during the Samaritan Revolts which took place in the sixth century. The Byzantine Empire constructed a new basilica in 565 and made several additions, including large bell towers.

Sites Resources

Sports

Sports such as tennis, wrestling, and basketball have become popular in Palestine in recent years; however, football (soccer in the United States) remains the most played sport. The Palestine Football Association was founded in the Palestinian Territories in 1962 and admitted as a member of FIFA in 1998 following the establishment of the PA.  Palestine’s national football team, The Knights, have had moderate success in international football. They reached their highest ranking (115) in 2006, but the team has yet to qualify for either the Asian Cup or the World Cup.

Palestine has also made several appearances at the Olympics. The Palestine Olympic Committee has been recognized by the International Olympic Committee since 1995, and the organization has competed in every Summer Games since. Palestine has sent competitors in swimming, athletics, and judo, but has not received any medals to date. Athletes in Palestine face difficulty in receiving adequate training as the territory often lacks the proper equipment, funding, and coaching required to develop world-class competitors.

Parkour, urban acrobatics that involves leaping on and around structures, is also a popular pastime in Palestine, particularly Gaza. It is popular among Palestinian youth not only for its subversive quality and symbolism of overcoming obstacles, but also because the environment of buildings and ruins is ideal for free runners.

Palestine also boasts the world’s first all-female car-racing team, the Speed Sisters. Made up of five women from varying Palestinian backgrounds, the team customizes street cars for racing and practices on stretches of land next to Israeli military compounds. The team’s manager attributes her love of racing to frustration at Palestine’s frequent road checkpoints and traffic jams.

Sports Resources

LATEST NEWS & COMMENTARY ON PALESTINE

Middle East Policy Council

Scholarly essays, commentary and forums on Palestine

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The New York Times

News about Palestine, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times.

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PALESTINIAN NEWS OUTLETS

The Electronic Intifada

The Electronic Intifada is an independent online news publication and educational resource focusing on Palestine, its people, politics, culture and place in the world.

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Ma'an News Agency

Available in English and Arabic

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The Palestine Chronicle

English language digital magazine covering issues related to Palestinian refugees and other displaced people across the world

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ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)

Negotiations Affairs Department

United Nations Relief Works Agency

U.N. Agency created in 1949 to address the needs of Palestinian refugees

United Nations Development Programme

Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People

IMEU on Palestinian Right of Return

IMEU fact sheet

ANERA

American Near East Refugee Aid, an organization dedicated to improving the lives of Palestinian refugees